The book "The Man of Numbers" and its review reiterate (for western readers) that current numerals/algebra are inherited from Hindus. It starts with an example how would be current math if west is still using Roman numerals.
One interesting thing which I read first time is "It were merchants (European) who first used Hindu numerals not mathematician , because it was very practical for their accounting".
This book is on Italian mathematician Fibonacci , how he read Hindu math and presented to Europe.
Author still mix Arabic with Hindu numerals , but I guess slowly with more open researches Arabic could be omitted.